Agit Kristiana (National Institute of Public Administration)
Erna Irawati (National Institute of Public Administration)
The year 2010 has been marked as an important era in term of bureaucratic reform in Indonesia. One of the agenda being enforce is in the area of human resource management by promoting professional position (functional position) in the public organization. One of those professional is policy analyst (PA). Public policy in Indonesia has been noticeable with complex, redundant which lead to inefficiency, unclear objectives, great in number, and not intended to serve the public (Dwiyanto, 2015). For those reasons, PA was established in 2013 to provide better quality of recommendations based on solid evidences (evidence-based policy).
After three years of implementation and recruited around 80 PA which are spread into 19 ministries/agencies/local governments, Center for Policy Analyst Development-NIPA conducted a research to understand and know the present and role of PA in their respective organizations. Qualitative descriptive research is used to analyze PA’s experience in conducting their tasks, responsibilities, and roles. All ministries/agencies/local governments are observed and analyzed closely to portray their point of view. Organization, leadership, and PA’s capacity are chosen as variables to analyze their experiences in dealing with their activities.
Findings show that organization and leader support are lacking while PA’s capacity is present in moderate rate. The organization has the lowest value 10.75 comparing to leaders’ support 18.19 and PA’s capacity 35.75. In total, the utilization of PA is 40.87. Based on those findings some recommendation is presented: NIPA as agency that has responsibilities to develop the PA has to work closely with Ministry of Government Apparatus Empowerment and Bureaucratic Reform to create innovative ways to place PA in a strategic route of decision making process and ‘force’ decision makers to use and take advantage of PA’s existence.
Aliasghar Pourezzat (University of Tehran)
Fatemeh Nadjar Shams (University of Tehran)
Resilience is an individual characteristic related to a person who can resist difficulties and adversities, reshape conditions and circumstances according to their aim. Transcribing this characteristic from an individual to a number of people requires the ability to inspire replication of the concept of resilience into culture and try to embed it into social communication. Thus, by expanding the resilience culture, we can produce resilience administration which can instill and continue the goal forward in a way that would make distinct causes in the perseverance. This kind of administration has a powerful capacity for defeating entropy.
By increasing negative entropy, the capacity of social resilience would increase. The aim of this paper is to discover the factors of which would create the most benefit among organizations’ members, and result in an observation increase in the perseverance of the organization. The more social capital and resilience you have in organization, the more effective in confronting the crisis you face. The main factors in increasing the level of resilience in crisis are justice, social capital, cooperative culture, ethical elegance, concentration of the group on problem solving, effectiveness of social system’s communication and supportive lingual capacity.
Resilience ethics shines at the middle chain of all these factors. Thus, we can claim that resilience ethics are the most important point in expanding an effective administration system, especially in confronting to social crises. Perhaps the secret of increasing in social coherency and resilience capacity, is a correct distribution of members’ information of individual and system’s abilities and capacities. Finally, in every crisis situation, clear and correct information from the situation would be of service to crisis managers.
Han Nu Ngoc Ton (National Institute of Development Administration)
With the aim of ending the extreme poverty, inequality, and climate change by 2030, the world leaders agreed with 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development in September 2015. Gender equality, the 5th Sustainable Development Goal, aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Initially, the paper introduced the covering development polices in Vietnam to make gender equality in a reality. Subsequently, the author reviewed the concept of gender equality in Vietnam within different development periods. The author analyzed achievements and challenges on gender equality based on the available descriptive data, concrete examples, concepts and indices of sustainable development. The paper reveals the significant changes on gender equality throughout the achievements on the advancement of women, the efforts on reduction of harmful practices in marriage, the challenges on gender equality in Vietnam. The author realizes that Vietnam has been on the long road to reach its sustainable development goals. However, the gender equality has stood at the second level in sustainable development dashboard. It also indicates the continuous efforts on gender equality from the government, the public and private sectors, as well as the whole country. The further studies enable beyond retrieve on various dimensions of gender equality in the context of Vietnam throughout the author view. The policy makers, politicians and the government enable scrutiny of the current and new approaches to surmount gender equality in tune with the world.
Migrants Entrepreneurship Management and Monitoring in Developing Countries: Is It Effective and Efficient?
Seyed Kamal Vaezi (University of Tehran)
In-pyo Hwang (National Human Resources Development Institute)
Experimental evidences show migrants are more likely than natives to become
entrepreneur in the host country. This trend is true for small and in some cases
medium sized businesses and there for migrants have the potential to help develop
domestic market. The key reasons for this phenomenon include good business intelligence, the need to work harder to keep their position, more competitive and sustainable advantages in their competition, low survival rates for migrants, know well the risk when they are in self-employment, and illegal, informal or unusual activities.
These elements encourage the migrants to be more entrepreneurs. But there is an important question: "How the host country can benefit from this entrepreneurship resource and capability?" In some developing countries a huge group of migrants from different countries are living and working but in many cases the host country cannot manage this human capital effectively.
This proposal is an attempt to prepare a map to answer the following questions: 1) How host countries can discover the entrepreneurship of migrants?, 2) How this opportunity can manage considering beneficiary of both migrants and host country?, and 3) How the host county can organize an entrepreneurship market to exchange
innovations towards two groups?
How People’s Participation is Realized in the Philippine Local Governments: An Empirical Study on the Local Development Council
Kenichi Nishimura (Osaka University)
Since Local Government Code of 1991 was enacted, we have observed various efforts for decentralization in the Philippines. One of the most important elements of this decentralization is to promote people’s participation in local governance. And to realize this, Local Government Code 1991 provides local development council (hereafter, LDC) among others in each local government (hereafter, LGU). LDC, however, is said not have been functioning properly to realize people’s participation in policy process although more and more LGUs had started to enact it. Therefore, this paper provides an overview on the extent of diffusion of LDC in the Philippines utilizing the results of our elite survey entitled “2011 Local Government Survey in the Philippines”, which the principal investigator was Fumio Nagai of Osaka City University.
With the findings from our quantitative analysis, we will see how LDCs are operated in the LGUs and how they contribute to the improvement in the performance of LGUs in the Philippines. For this analysis, we mainly used the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis to see the detail of functioning of LDCs and their effects to the promotion of the performance of LGUs.
Public Perception Survey As An Early Warning Method In Reducing The Negative Impact Of Bureaucratization
Muhammad Syafiq (National Institute of Public Administration)
Naufal Sabda Auliya (National Institute of Public Administration)
Discourses on bureaucratization and debureaucratization have long been prominent. Responding to the discourse, Gerald E Caiden, through the theory of Curve J (Caiden, 1994) or Parabolic Theory of Bureaucracy (Caiden, 2009) explains the relationship between bureaucracy and bureaucratic efficiency. According to him, the relationship between bureaucracy and bureaucratic efficiency is not linear but parabolic. Bureaucracy at some point creates efficiency, but when it goes beyond its optimum point, the bureaucracy becomes increasingly inefficient. Thus, when is bureaucracy beyond its optimum point in order to need debureaucratization? There is currently no definite indicator to show that bureaucratization has exceeded its optimum point. This paper offers the solution to the discourse of bureaucratization and debureaucratization that should be left to the public as the main object in the delivery of public services by public perception survey. The data used to justify the ideas in this paper are derived from the results of the study in five regions, namely Muara Enim Regency, Yogyakarta City, South Tangerang City, Serang City, and DKI Jakarta Province.
HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN REGION I, PHILIPPINES: BASIS FOR POLICY AGENDA ON ENERGY CONSERVATION
Divino Amor P. Rivera (Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University)
Paulito C. Nisperos (Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University)
Alicia F. Oliva (Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University)
The study generated energy consumption of household in Region I as basis in the policy agenda identification. It sought answers on characteristic of household heads, households and household energy consumption; level of accuracy using data imputation and; significant difference between the data imputation procedures. This study is descriptive research using Household Energy Consumption Survey (HECS) administered to 1,133 respondents in Region I.
More than three-fourths (76.88) percent of the respondents were male as heads and almost one-fourth were female; almost one-third (30.63%) were self-employed. 9/10 uses electricity for lighting; 8/10 uses it in entertainment. On the ownership of vehicles, 28.42% were owners, while still a greater portion does not own vehicles. The relationship between characteristics of the household and their fuel consumption gave a negative negligible correlation; regression imputation was consistent in creating a complete data with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the missing value on the data set.
The exploration of factors relevant to influencing Civil Servants’ Job performance: A case of Vietnam
Giang Vinh Hoang (National Academy of Public Administration)
Martin Broad (University of Southampton)
Pingli Li (University of Southampton)
Hong T. M. Bui (University of Bath)
Over the years, there has been a considerable body of researches on performance, but very few found in job performance within public organizations. Recently, several public administration scholars and practitioners have paid attention to this theme due to the requirements of public sector reforms, especially the application of New Public Management, basing on the theories from the private sector. It should note that performance in the public sector have their own characteristics, differing from in the private sector. Therefore, it is unreasonable when most of researchers in the public sector consider performance as a variable by applying the theoretical frameworks conducted in the private sector. Furthermore, since the theories performance are mostly studied in developed countries, it is a “naive” and even “disastrous” copy for the
developing countries which have been implementing public sector reforms to apply these theories, especially on performance, which are unique and complicated.
The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the experiences and concerns of Vietnamese civil servants and to determine what influences their job performance in practice. The aims of the research are: 1) to understand the perceptions of civil servants in their job performance practices, 2) to identify what factors affect civil servants’ job performance. We used grounded theory methodology and collected data through fifty-six civil servants from different administrative organizations, roles, ages, and years of experience from the north, the centre, and the south of Vietnam were interviewed within six months (from July 2016 to December 2016). We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using open, axial, selective coding and comparative method.
It is indicated that numerous factors, such as civil servants’ status, relationship issues,
leadership, job characteristics, job performance evaluation, regulation frameworks, political interventions, hierarchical apparatus, organizational factors and social context are relevant to affecting the Vietnamese civil servants’ job performance in practice.
Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Badrin (Razak School of Government)
Public leaders must understand wicked problems and the dynamics of emerging challenge in the context of today and in the future. The resulting dynamics inevitably challenge existing societal needs, governmental policies, democracy and models for the delivery of services. Based on insights from previous summits and research, experts forecast greater alignment and new partnerships between sectors and state & non-state actors to create pathways to citizen well-being and country’s progress. Advances in socio-economics, supported with diffusion of socio-technologies will generate entirely new way for public leaders in engaging with citizens in hyper-connected era, evaluating programs and customizing services. The study aims to understand future scenarios in public leadership and to review the existing leadership learning and development programme for Malaysian Civil Service (MCS). Based on the environmental scanning, there were three landscape scenarios developed namely digital, diversity and emotional / engagement. The impact from this research is expected to enhance public leadership in modernising & transforming the MCS and create better organisational outcomes such as greater innovation, productivity, service to citizens, cost effective, decision making and transparency. Through this research, it provides a framework to help in developing public leadership and accelerate transformation in a more inclusive and sustainable manner.
How can we promote organizational innovation? : Research on Organizational Justice, Public Service Motivation, Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Hyo Joo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University)
Seo Rin Kim (Sungkyunkwan University)
Eun Hye Seo (Sungkyunkwan University)
Sung Min Park (Sungkyunkwan University)
Organizational innovation is not only the interaction with external environment but also the accumulation process of internal members’ efforts to drive the desirable change (Amabile et al., 2004). In other words, the initiatives of organizational innovation are the attitude and behavior of individual those are motivated by the will to improve the current situation. It is individual to bring out the organizational innovation (Griffin et al., 2007; Parker, Williams, & Turner, 2006).
One of the most influencing factors on individual attitude and behavior in Korean public sector is pay for performance under the New Public Management (NPM) waves since 1990. Additionally, the pay for performance has been believed as the driving force to innovate the public organizations. With the introduction of pay for performance, organizational justice has been crucial factor (Greenberg, Ashton-James, & Ashkanasy, 2007) to determine the success of HRM practices designed by NPM waves.
Drawing on survey data from the “Korean public employees’ perceptions on public organization” collected in 2016, this research investigates those questions. First, could we statistically confirm the level of organizational justice in Korean central and local governments? Second, does the organizational justice significantly and directly affect individuals’ attitude (Public Service Motivation: PSM) and behavior (Organizational Citizenship Behavior: OCB)? Thirdly, do individual PSM and OCB play a role in promoting organizational innovation(Creative behavior and Perceived Organizational Innovation)? Thus, using SEM, this study will prove how crucial the organizational justice of HRM practices in bringing out the organizational innovation. Based on empirical results with a massive sample data of Korean public sector and related theories, this research will provide abundant theoretical and policy implications on HRM and sustainable development in Korean public sector.
THEME B: Human Resources and Social Capital for Sustainable Development
Empowering Governance Stakeholders for Quality Public Service