Social Capital and Healthy Aging: A study on the effect of social capital using multilevel modeling
Yugyeong Eo (Seoul National University)
Intae Kim (Seoul National University)
Seokho Hong (SNU SSK Research Center for Aged Society and Social Capital)
Soon Eun Kim (Seoul National University)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of social capital on the healthy aging of the elderly. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze social capital at individual and local levels. Also, we applied the concepts of 'bonding social capital' and 'bridging social capital' to explain the theoretical impact of local-level social capital on the health of elderly individuals. Individual social capital was measured by the elderly person's perception of trust, networks, and participation. For this purpose, a survey conducted on 1,060 persons over 65 years old in 32 local governments was used. Local-level social capital was measured by the average level of trust in local community, number of various associations, local election turnout and so on.
The results showed that higher levels of individual social capital were associated with higher subjective health status for the elderly. However, results were mixed regarding the impact of local-level social capital. Higher generalized levels of trust, greater numbers of religious, volunteer, political, industry and professional organizations, and higher information disclosure application rates were associated with higher subjective health status for the elderly. On the other hand, higher levels of trust in local community and greater numbers of civil movement organizations and labor unions were associated with lower subjective health level for the elderly. These results imply that social capital can promote healthy aging if it is based on a positive relationship with the elderly, but that it may have insignificant or adverse effects if it is not related to the elderly. Based on this analysis, policy measures were proposed to improve the health of the elderly through social capital.
A Review of the Civil Service Reform in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Lessons for Asian Public Policy Makers
Peter K. W. Fong (Hong Kong Public Administration Association)
After becoming a Special Administrative Region of China under “One Country, Two Systems” on 1 July 1997, Hong Kong faced severe financial difficulties during the Asian financial crisis in 1998. The Chief Executive of the new administration, Mr. Tung Chee-hwa, launched an Enhanced Productivity Programme in 1998 and a Civil Service Reform in 1999. Both aimed at reducing public spending and civil service head counts so as to secure sustainable improvement in public sector productivity. At the macro level, policy management reforms, including financial management, human resource management, institutional, and operational reforms were introduced through privatization, corporatization, marketization, and commercialization. Of all the reform programmes, the civil service reform was the most significant and has brought wide-range impacts on public administration and public service provision in Hong Kong. This paper will review and analyze the rationales, objectives, principles, processes, and initiatives of the civil service reform undertaken by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Government. An evaluation of its issues, changes, outcomes, goal achievements, and implications to the public service will be made. Finally, the paper will conclude with lessons learned form the Hong Kong experience and recommend some critical success factors for other Asian public policy makers who wish to launch new reforms to improve civil service productivities in their own political and administrative jurisdictions.
Performance Evaluation Analysis of Employees in Nueva Ecija in the Delivery of Basic Services Using the Strategic Performance Management(SPMS) Framework
Nimfa S. Villaroman (Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology)
The study analyzed the performance of the employees in three (3) city local government units (LGUs) in Nueva Ecija in the delivery of basic services using the Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS) framework. Their performance levels on their functions were analyzed from the basic services delivered on health, social welfare, infrastructure, agriculture and environment. The study also dealt with the identification of problems encountered by the employees in the delivery of these services. Primary data were sourced out from the submitted Individual Performance Commitment and Review (IPCR) Form and Office Performance Commitment and Review (OPCR) Form of the employees in the year 2014 and 2015. However, no data were collected from other city LGUs since they were not able to implement the system during those years. Using the descriptive research where documentary analysis and interview were employed in treating the data gathered, the study showed that the employees performance levels were satisfactory to outstanding. These ratings were the results of the measurement of their outputs in three dimensions, namely : quantity, efficiency and timeliness.
The study also revealed that employees in the three (3) LGUs have different thrusts and directions in the delivery of services. Employees of LGU A have their strengths on health services, employees of LGU C excelled on social welfare while employees of LGU D got their highest rating on services rendered on environment. However, in using the SPMS as a tool, the study found out that employees still have insufficient understanding of its procedures and how other services could be measured accurately.
In view of the findings of the study, it is recommended that continuing immersion of the employees in using the SPMS through re-orientation as to its elements and cycle be conducted by the LGUs to ensure success of its implementation and the establishment of validating scheme that will provide structural mechanism to assure accuracy of the ratings obtained. Future studies involving the performance of employees from the national agencies are also encouraged to be conducted using the SPMS to identify the flaws of the system, if there are any, in order to ensure success of its implementation.
THEME B: Human Resources and Social Capital for Sustainable Development
Empowering Governance Stakeholders for Quality Public Service