Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Biofuels Production: Implications for Developed and Developing Economies
John Paul D. Antes (Sugar Regulatory Administration)
Surging fossil fuel prices, concerns about energy security, and issues of climate change have been generating anxiety in both developed and developing economies. According to the International Energy Agency, it is expected that between 2003 and 2030 the world consumption of marketed energy will escalate by 71%, with Asia nearly tripling its energy needs. Of the forms of energy currently on the market, fossil fuels, particularly oil for transportation, remain the primary source of energy at 79% global final energy consumption and global demand continues to be driven by the transport and industry sectors around the world. Therefore, policies, plans and programs to move towards full development and utilization of transport biofuels are imperative for further growth. One step to boosting the development of biofuels is to identify and evaluate the factors that may influence or affect the production of biofuels.
This study concentrates only on top 17 biofuel-producing nations appeared as leaders in the 2007 and 2008 Biofuels Country Attractiveness Indices commissioned by Ernst & Young. Apparently, these countries have existing markets, infrastructures and legal framework to support the development and utilization of renewable biomass energy particularly the bioethanol and biodiesel. Most of these biofuels are energy sources that use sugars, starches, or vegetable oils for fuel additives.
Who Would Be Willing to Accept Disaster Debris in Their Backyard?: Investigating the Determinants of Public Attitudes in Post-Fukushima Japan
Naomi Aoki (National University of Singapore)
This study investigates the Japanese public’s attitudes towards inter-municipal collaboration in treating disaster debris. In the wake of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the Ministry of Environment asked municipalities nationwide to accept and treat disaster waste. This call for cross-jurisdictional waste treatment provoked considerable public controversy. To explore how the national and municipal governments can seek better public acceptance in the wake of future disasters, this study implemented a nationwide survey and addressed the question of what factors influence the public’s willingness to support their municipalities’ plans to host disaster waste. Estimates from ordered logistic regressions (N=1,162) revealed that the event of a nuclear accident and living with a child in the household would lower the level of support for accepting the disaster waste, although this does not mean that people would give their support in the absence of a nuclear accident. The results also suggest that the national and municipal governments should communicate more with the public about the risks, benefits, and costs associated with hosting disaster debris, and make efforts to improve public trust in the national government.
Academe, Government and Private Sector Collaboration on Rabies Control and Prevention in Maramag, Bukidnon, Philippines
Jose M. Obedencio, Jr. (Central Mindanao University)
Lucky Ray G. Carangcarang (Central Mindanao University)
Ruan P. Obedencio (Maramag Local Government Unit)
Alan P. Dargantes (Central Mindanao University)
Jose V. Obedencio (Maramag Local Government Unit)
Evangeline C. Revilla (Maramag Local Government Unit)
One of the targets for the sustainable development goals is to end the epidemics of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) which include rabies. Rabies has claimed 200 to 300 lives of Filipinos annually. The province of Bukidnon ranks highest in number of rabies cases in the Philippines. In Maramag, Bukidnon, there are around 2,000 cases of animal bites every year.
At present, the local government unit (LGU) of Maramag has no municipal veterinarian to address this public health issue thus, animal rabies in the municipality has not been prioritized by the LGU. It is in this context that LGU Maramag collaborated with Central Mindanao University, national agencies, non-governmental organizations on Research, Development and Extension activities for rabies prevention and control in the locality.
In the study “Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Rabies Control and Prevention among Residents in Maramag, Bukidnon, Philippines”, majority of the residents have low to poor level of knowledge and practices on rabies prevention and control.
The information that were derived in this study as part of the collaborative project were vital input in drafting local ordinances and planning out necessary measures to improve the programs and strategies aimed at controlling and preventing rabies in Maramag, Bukidnon.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM (SIDA) IN SUPPORTING COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT THROUGH DOWNSTREAMING PALM OIL PRODUCT IN NORTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA
Marlon Sihombing (University of North Sumatra)
Iskandar Muda (University of North Sumatra)
Faisal Eriza (University of North Sumatra)
The purpose of the research is to determine the development regional innovation system (SIDA) in supporting strategic partnership among government, private sector and the public in North Sumatra. It is a qualitative-descriptive research. The population was 150 families using purposive random sampling technique.
North Sumatra is one of the Province in Indonesia which has the large plantation of Palm oil for about 1.2 million hectares. The Government developed some special Economic Zones (KEK), one of them is KEK of Sei Mangkei. It is media to support strategic partnership among stakeholders. The government provides the integrated services for the investors to downstream plantation product. The Industry involves the public in growing palm nursery as the supplier of seeds. The waste of the plantation can be used for feeding cattle, excellent calves and bio gas. SIDA also developed the applied technology for the public.
Assessing Promoting Factors of Partnerships among Local Governments: Inter-Municipal Collaboration for Sustainable Service Delivery in Japan
Masao Kikuchi (Meiji University)
Inter-municipal collaboration is an important public service delivery reform. Instead of focusing on amalgamating governments, it facilitates functional consolidation of individual services across jurisdictions. Inter municipal collaboration helps small rural municipalities confronting limited resources and capacities. In a metropolitan region, it also helps counteract fragmentation and promote cohesive service delivery within area. With the increase of inter municipal collaboration in the practice, scholars are giving increasing attention to its causes, aspects, and implications of collaboration. Most of the research exploring factors promote inter municipal collaboration are confined in the case of selective states/counties in the U.S. Although the promoting factors are well explored in the these countries, factors of inter municipal cooperation where most of welfare service are provided through local government and the rapid aging society is underway such as in Japan or in Asia is not yet well explained.
The paper tries to analyze the promoting factors of inter municipal collaboration in Japan at each policy area. While Japanese economy have experienced stagnation for decades and population is rapidly aging, inter municipal collaboration is one of the strategies for local government to sustain the services. While the findings are most relevant in Japan, the discussion could be applied anywhere, especially in Asian context, and it could contribute the future discussion how to sustain the services where demands are on increase and resources are scarce.
Krismiyati Tasrin (National Institute of Public Administration)
Pratiwi (National Institute of Public Administration)
Previous studies have showed that Multi-stakeholder Partnership (MSP) is one effective alternative to ensure government innovation sustainability. In building innovative culture, Act 23 of 2014 mandates local government innovation. However, local government often faces challenges in conducting innovation, such as inadequate resources –time, people, money, information, and other tangible supports. By employing case study method, this paper answers CSR model with MSP approach in Bandung City, Indonesia. Bandung is one of most innovative cities in Indonesia which trying to build MSP in innovation implementation through a partnership program known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program. This study concluded that CSR program regulated by Bandung City Government has increased participatory level and supported development particularly in environmental and socio-economic sector. The program involves four stakeholders: local government, private sectors, universities, and civil society. Clear agreement about partnership objectives and responsibilities as well as distribution of power among the stakeholders are the most important success factors of the partnership model. While many local governments in Indonesia have similar problem of lacking resources in fully supporting innovation, we can learn from best practices applied in Bandung City.
Milagros A. Rimando (National Economic and Development Authority)
Jedidia D. Aquino (National Economic and Development Authority)
With the adoption of the renewed pursuit of regional autonomy, the Regional Development Council of the Cordillera Administrative Region (RDC-CAR) assumed the function of preparing the Cordillera for autonomy within the framework of EO 220. This presidential order created CAR as a preparatory step towards the eventual establishment of an autonomous region in the Cordillera in accordance with the 1987 Constitution. Initially implemented in 2007, the Social Preparation of the CAR into an Autonomous Region (SPCAR) has three major program thrusts: information, education and communication or IEC, capability-building on regional autonomy and development and alliance building.
For the early years of implementation, the program focused on the first two components and failed to strengthen the Alliance Building which was important to achieve the social preparedness of the Cordilleran communities and sectors. While the activities were able to improve the awareness on autonomy as a concept, the program lacked effort to persuade the people to support autonomy and approve it during a plebiscite called for the purpose.
The full paper will describe how the RDC adjusted its strategy and adopted a two- track framework with downstream and upstream programs. Downstream, the IEC and alliance building focused on the grassroots through the local governments, line agencies, civil society and business and other sectors. On the other hand, the upstream program targeted the national leaders in Congress, Senate, Office of the President and the Departments. It will also discuss how the program expanded to cover advocacy for federalism.
URS G-Force: The Pursuit of Non-Academic Revenue through the Establishment of a University Consultancy Firm in the Province of Rizal, Philippines
Medardo B. Bombita (University of Rizal System)
This study on the Establishment of a University Consultancy Firm in the province of Rizal dubbed as the “URS G-Force” intends to serve as a supplementary non-academic resource generation arm of the University of Rizal System using a new service platform based on the thriving requirements of the industry. The proposed consulting enterprise will serve as the conduit between the University and the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) for productivity improvement and operational efficiency by offering professional consultancy services and other industry-based short courses/training. Expected income to be accrued will be used to support innovative and transformative researches or projects in the University.
The consultancy firm or the URS G-Force shall use the University’s internal human resources whose expertise can effectively and efficiently serve for this venture. The researcher tested the viability of the proposal using financial analysis and data analysis. The planned strategies will serve as a framework to guide the systematic execution of the new platform. The consulting firm more than generating income for the University assumes to support the MSMEs that significantly contributes to the economic activities in the province also endeavours to create an innovative and transformative culture in the University
Ensuring multi-stakeholder partnership for the SDGs: Institutional arrangements from the perspective of multi-level governance
Eunju Kim (Korea Institute of Public Administration)
The unique characteristics of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are clearly distinguishable from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). First, it emphasizes ‘universality’ through its imperative, ‘No one left behind’. This applies not only to developing countries, but also to developed countries. It also extensively incorporates economic, social and environmental agendas into 17 goals and 169 targets. Moreover, it requires nation states to set-up multi-stakeholder partnerships as one of the most important means of implementation to achieve ambitious goals. However, this intrinsic nature can lead to fundamental difficulties when it comes to implementation at the national level. There exists an international consensus to set ambiguous goals in order to attract participation from various stakeholders. The SDGs are no exception to this tendency. In a nutshell, ambiguous goals and complex stakeholders make it more difficult to enforce implementation.
In this light, this paper discusses the need of horizontal and vertical coordination for implementation of the SDGs based on literatures of multi-level governance. It will then examine how institutional arrangements can be established in order to engage and coordinate various stakeholders. This paper will suggest policy implications to set-up institutional mechanisms in the Korean context, and introduce recent efforts by policy actors in Korea .The main aim of these discussions is to help policy makers in developing countries implement the SDGs and minimize administrative transaction costs; to engage diverse stakeholders; and to enable policy coordination among multiple stakeholders.
THE ROLE OF FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS DISASTER RISK GOVERNANCE: A CASE STUDY OF MOUNT SINABUNG ERUPTION IN KABUPATEN KARO
Asima Siahaan (University of North Sumatra)
This article explores the role of church by analyzing its role in dealing and addressing disaster due to Mount Sinabung eruption in Karo Regency. Despite the centrality of religious teachings and institutions in the life of the larger part of communities in Karo, religion and its institutions have been neglected in discussion of disaster management in Karo. The role of faith-based institutions including the church has yet to be well explored and documented in the development and disaster studies. The main purpose of this article is to examine the role of church in dealing with disaster. It also aims at exploring the the contributions of church and their impact on addressing women’s needs and interests. Using qualitative research methods and case study design, this article argues that the spiritual church’s legitimacy community’s deep trust to religious institutions including church contributes significantly to the effectiveness of disaster management programs. The church plays crucial role in all stages of disaster not only in providing basic services but also extend to developing social capital which is crucial in the midst of scarcity during disaster. This article argues that religious institution through the application of gender sensitive approaches in providing and serving services also provides room for women to participate and benefits and thus transform gender relations from recovery and rehabilitation programs, thus contribute to a just and sustainable disaster governance.
THEME C: Networks and Partnerships
Expanding and Strengthening Collaboration in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals