Dr. Jose Neil M. Hortillo (University of the Philippines Visayas)
In today’s highly connected globalized economy, citizen’s demands not only transparent good governance, but also exemplary service from its leaders and various institutions. And like any other organizations, the government must constantly find ways to motivate public servants to live the public service ethos, “to serve with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency and act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives (1987 Philippine Constitution).
This paper examines the motivating factors that explain why Filipino public servants remain in public service. In the past, studies on public service motivation have focused on the intrinsic altruistic motivations of public service. This paper would go further and measure the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors that affect the work attitude of Filipino public servants. Apart from intrinsic motivators (like altruism, loyalty, patriotism), there are other extrinsic motivators in public service. These extrinsic rational motivators include security of tenure, career development, pension system and work flexibility.
Public service motivation transcends the public sector because it characterizes motivations in other areas of society that involves the pursuit of public good. Results of this study may not only pertain to public service, but also to any organization that seeks to satisfy their workers’ needs and responsibility to their family with integrity and an overall work attitude that is congruence to the achievement of the common good.
THE IMPACT OF INDONESIA'S VILLAGE FUND (DANA DESA) TOWARDS VILLAGE HEAD ELECTIONS: EVIDENCE FROM BANJAR REGENCY
Khairullah Anshari (Ritsumeikan University) and Marthalina (Institute Governance of Home Affairs)
Indonesia has stipulated 2014 Village Law as a grand effort for boosting rural development. It is also known as the next government decentralization policy to villages. Two important points of 2014 Village Law: the first is the establishment of Dana Desa or the village fund from central government that creates progressive village budget increase with the mechanism of cash-for-work at the community level. The second is the village head serves for one term of six years and can be elected three times, whereas the previous regulation allowed for only two terms. This article tested whether the presence of the village fund motivate resident to compete in the village head election. The evidence used was from the survey that follows by village heads candidates of the 2016 simultaneous village heads elections in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan Province. Some key findings are marked. First, more educated people participated in the village head election even the minimum standard of education is only junior high school. Second, the highest motivation to be village head candidates is the budget increase because of the village fund. Third, two factors that significantly determine the votes is the motivation to be the village head and the experience ever to be village head. This article suggests that the regency government as the superior of the village government should train the elected village heads immediately to maintain the performance of the village government.
Mr. Shiva Hari Adhikari (Nepal Administrative Staff College)
Remittance flows to low/middle-income counties are on a continuous rise and this scenario applies to Nepal as well. There is a constant increase in the number of Nepalese migrating for foreign employment and in remittance earnings. Remittance is contributing significantly in Gross Domestic Product and is emerging as a backbone of Nepal’s economy. However, ways remittances contribute to social development entail many facets to explore because they affect development in multiple ways. This study attempts to analyze the possibility that remittances positively contribute to social development, considering educational and health development as its proxies. Based on disaggregated educational enrollment and nutrition data by district for the latest available year that is 2009, this study analyzed the impact of remittances on school enrollment and improvement in health status of families who remain at home. It was assumed that remittances are not only spent on daily consumption but are also invested in education and health of the household members. The results show significant relationship between remittances and school enrollment whereas, insignificant between remittances and health. This indicates that remittances may serve as a contributing factor in educational enrollment for social development.
Ms. Arlene Eleanor E. Liberal and Ms. Serenidad F. Lavador (Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation)
As a signatory to various international agreements on climate change and the environment, the Philippines is committed to pursue policies, programs and activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, one of which is climate finance. The paper examines the current status of climate finance in the Philippines and suggests measures to further improve its design and implementation. In this connection, an important role is played by the Climate Change Commission, which is tasked to formulate policies, coordinate public and private sector efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation, and provide climate finance. Public and private financial institutions led by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas have also opened, and currently provide financing facilities for renewable energy and green projects, in the process also serving
as conduits for international funds on climate change.
Climate finance being new in the country, awareness of its role and availability is still at a low level. There is a need to raise public awareness, incentivize climate finance providers and users, and build the capacity of institutions and individuals to assess and implement projects on climate change. The Philippines can also learn from the relevant experience of other countries.
Dr. Jose P. Tabbada and Dr. Arturo G. Pacho (University of the Philippines)
Under the Duterte administration, foreign borrowing, particularly from the People’s Republic of China, has become a favored economic growth strategy. The issue that this preference for Chinese loans has raised, and which this paper also raises and tries to answer, is whether the strategy is sustainable. A debt is sustainable if the benefits of the project to which the loan proceeds are applied exceed the cost of borrowing.
To determine whether the debts incurred by the Duterte administration are sustainable, some of the loan agreements signed by and between the Philippines and China will be examined for provisions in the agreement that are onerous, one-sided in favor of the lender, and/or disadvantageous to the borrower. The terms and conditions of the Chinese loans will also be compared with those of other sources in order to determine which sources offer better terms for the Philippines and ensure that no one source is unduly favored. Finally, the experience of other countries which have earlier borrowed from China will be discussed; from such experiences, lessons and policy recommendations will be drawn to enhance debt sustainability in the Philippines.
Dr. Sivakumar Velayutham and Mr. Rashedul Hasan (Nilai University)
The Malaysian Trust Schools Programme is a collaboration of Yayasan Amir (a foundation set up by Khazanah a sovereign wealth fund of the Government of Malaysia) and the Malaysian Ministry of Education to improve accessibility to quality education in public schools (Yayasan Amir, 2017). The above programme has been promoted as a public-private partnership by both Khazanah and the Ministry of Education (Wan Jan, 2014; Devi, 2018; Yaysan Amir, 2017). Yayasan Amir funds the programme through funding by Khazanah, other sponsors, and the issue of a sukuk (Islamic Bonds) and is administered by Leap Ed (a fully owned subsidiary of Khazanah) by way of a service agreement with Yayasan Amir. A review of a public-private partnership literature indicates that the above collaboration does not meet the criteria of a public private partnership. This paper seeks to interrogate the possible reasons for structuring of the above collaboration as a public-private partnership between a sovereign wealth fund and the state in light of the Malaysian 1MDB scandal. The study highlights the need to be more critical of the benefits of public-private partnerships and the scope for abuse.
public finance and the good life
taxation; debt sustainability; mobilization of domestic resources; government expenditures; remittances for development; etc.